TODAY -

The problems of learning English as a second language by Liangmais

CH Widinibou *



English is the second language for the people, of Liangmai as it is the native language of England and American. The Government-run schools impart education through local vernaculars, private schools prefer English and the general tendency of the people is to get their children admitted to English medium schools.

On the other hand, higher education such as given in the colleges, universities and specialised education, ie engineering and technology, science, etc is given in English. English has become the most important international language and is the most commonly taught second or foreign language in the world. Liangmai people came to contact with English language as it is compulsory subject in the school level.

Linguisticatly, Liangmai and English language differ from each other. The difference in English and Liangmai can be seen in subject matter relating to phonology, morphology and syntax. Today, I would like to highlight the difference in linguistic field and the problem faced by the Liangmai students in learning English as second language based on phonology, morphology and syntax.

The error committed by the Liangmai students while learning English as a second language shows such enormous mutual differences. The error provides insight in the field of language teaching. language learning and teaching involves error as no learner can learn the correct form of the language overnight.

The learner has to be taught about the aspect of the language and to produce whatever has been taught or to conduct similar pattern of language. The learner may not learn everything that has been taught or tend to over generalise. The students while learning English as second language, they commit certain errors due to mother tongue interference. The common errors which can be perceived are:-

1. Phonology

Liangmai language has its own phonological features which are distinct from English phonology.
Examples I
(a) /f/ is a voiceless labiodental fricative in English but is absence in liangmai. When the consonant /f/ occurs they substitute it by /ph/ which is voiceless aspirated bilabial plosive.
English - Liangmai
Fish - phis
Fast - phas
Father - phader
Liangmai speakers tend to say the above words by using /ph/ which is voice bilabial plosive in Liangmai.

(b) /v/ is a voiced labiodental fricative in English but /v/ is absent in Liangmai. When the consonant/vi occurs it is substitute by /b/ which is voiced bilabial plosive in Liangmai.
English - Liangmai
Vehicle - bihikal
Van - ban
Volley - boli
Liangmai speakers while speak English they tend to say above the words by using /b/ which is voiced bilabial plosive instead of using /v/.

(c) Lexical problems:
(i) Ship cheap
Same shame
The problem that can be seen unable to distinguish between /s/ and Its /
(ii) To too
The problem that can be seen unable to distinguish between /u/ and /u:/
(Hi) Sit seat
The problem that can be seen unable to distinguish between /i! and /i:/

2. Morphology:

Reduplication: it is done to emphasize the effect where words are repeated but in English it is rarely practiced.

Examples
(i) Liangmai - koi koi tad lo
slowly slowly go com
'Go slowly'
(ii) Liangmai
sou sou wang lo who who come Q marker
Who corries?
The Liangmai speakers while they speak English they tend to imitate the Ll pattern

3. Syntax

Liangmai language belongs to the Tibeto Burman language family and has the following order of its constituent subject, object and verb (SOV). While English language its constituent is subject, verb and object (SVO).The problems that are likely to arise are on the sentence construction as they tend to imitate Ll pattern.

Examples
Liangmai-(i) i chakuang dung khiu mine. i plate plural wash past asp M
'I washed the plates'
Liangmai speakers while speak English they tend to omit led' past tense marker and plural IS'

(ii) Liangmai­ john wang-Io
john come com
John come!
The liangmai speakers while they speak English they tend to used by adding Ina'.
i.e. john come na.

(iii) Apiu
mitiang tad mide
My father meeting go asp M
'My father went for meeting'
Liangmai speakers while speak English. Tthey tend to the above sentence by using mitiang.
i.e. my father went for mitiang.

(iv) Apiu
prichiang tad mine
My father
preaching go past asp
'my father went for preaching'
Liangmai speakers while speak English they tend to the above sentence by using prichiang.
i.e. my father went for prichiang.

(v) Liangmai- rapiu tu thon lo !
Lord accu praise com
'Praise the lord'
Liangmai speakers tend to the above sentence by using 'parese ta 10' instead of praise the Lord.
i.e. parese ta lo.


* CH Widinibou wrote this article for The Sangai Express. This article was webcasted on January 21st, 2010.



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.


LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • Nangna Helli Nungshiba #2 :: eRang
  • Pung Chollom : Gallery
  • Wakhal Seireng :: Book Review
  • Imphal Jamboree by Global Shapers
  • Importance of regular health check-ups
  • Meetei demand for ST is Constitutional.. #2
  • Weapon Display organized at Moreh
  • Ex-Servicemen Rally organized
  • AR helps Orphanage & Old Age Home
  • Search of comprehensive culture & identity
  • List of MLA (Jan 2018) #1 : Gallery
  • Manipur Gas Today :: Android App
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #3: Gallery
  • GNRC media fellowship announced
  • The Meiteis- Festival & celebration maniacs
  • How to make bridal mehndi long lasting
  • Governor's attention drawn to RIMS
  • Scientist develops prototype of electric car
  • Stereotypes about NE make people living..
  • Light Show at Loktak Lake #5 : Gallery
  • Candlelight vigil for Pravish : Gallery
  • Imbroglio of ethnic identity of Ranglong
  • Foundation For Excellence scholarship
  • Time Table - Class XII Exam 2018
  • Mail spoofing- Trickery by deception
  • The Killing Fields :: News Timeline
  • Trial by fire
  • Call for solution before election
  • Villagers along Myanmar border get pass
  • Meetei Chanu 2017 #3 : Gallery
  • Tonreimung, Willubuibou: eMing
  • Art and Artist, A Creative Space
  • NEROCA FC Vs Indian Arrows #2 : Gallery
  • Ode to Thy Mellow Light :: Poem
  • Xmas with Meitei eche at Phaijol
  • Time Table - Class XI Exam 2018
  • Indo-Naga Talks 2017 :: News Timeline
  • IMC , now another hurdle to traffic mgmt
  • Setting aside two days for the people
  • Maring: Kummui Chaa-um : Gallery
  • Miss Manipur 2017 #5 : Gallery
  • Statehood Day Women's Polo Tournament
  • Time Table - HSLC Exam 2018
  • Bananas: Beauty's best friend
  • DPC for Follower at Manipur Police
  • Job Openings at JCRE Skill Solutions
  • The lost treasure
  • Nagas' Interests : Stand of NPF MSU
  • Nagaland polls on schedule: HM
  • Mukna Kangjei Tournament #2: Gallery
  • Keisham Manihar : Natyabhusan(Leela)
  • World Tourism Day #3: Gallery
  • Responsibility of protecting the environment
  • Phishing vs Vishing: The Verbal Challenge
  • BNHS Bi-monthly Program for Jan-Feb
  • Managing weight for preventing diabetes
  • Making democracy peoples' participatory
  • Progressing from media to SC
  • Manipur to set up modern food lab
  • Gaan Ngai @ Kakhulong Khun: Gallery
  • A trip to Moreh #2 : Gallery
  • How long catchy slogans keep hopes alive
  • Recycling of hospital waste-water
  • I am sometime or somewhere : Poem
  • Angami Zapu Phizo's Surreal 2017 AD
  • Film "Legacy Of King Narak" awarded
  • Of PM and our CM
  • Patronising the killing machines ?
  • Deferment of polls unlikely: Ravi
  • PM may visit Manipur in March
  • Emoinu Khoiramba @Koubru #2: Gallery
  • NEROCA FC Vs East Bengal #2: Gallery
  • Transform Colleges into Innovation Centres
  • New Delhi: World Book Fair 2018 :: Review
  • Cry Of A Dying River...12 :: Poem
  • Workshop on National Pension for NE
  • Law enforcers action - Well & good
  • Final pact yet to see light of day
  • Cold wave hits Manipur
  • Take out the cymbals, Manoharsai to stay
  • Indo-Naga Peace Process :: Articles
  • MaiOn - Scenes #2 :: eRang
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #2: Gallery
  • Miss Manipur 2017 #4 : Gallery
  • Is Global Warming Natural or Anthropogenic
  • Prof Gangmumei Kamei: Legendary hero
  • Common Education System rally organized
  • DAMMS launched 2018 calendar
  • Chorus for 'Solution Not Election'
  • NEROCA FC Vs Indian Arrows #1 : Gallery
  • Gaan Ngai @Moirangkhom : Gallery
  • I was born healthy, I wanna die healthy
  • Practice peace & change the life
  • TSA Moreh Block installed
  • Cycle Rally: common education system
  • Ethics, medical profession & soaring fees
  • Press Club observes foundation day
  • Meet on film equipment
  • Meetei Chanu 2017 #2 : Gallery
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) Demand :: Timeline
  • Meira rally for Pravish : Gallery
  • Accelerate momentum to endTB for SDGs
  • The call that can't be turned down
  • Live@MDU: New act with same old vibes
  • 1st Centre of Excellence- Electronics Skill
  • LED Lights installed by Loktak Station
  • NE tragedy: Policy failures & influx
  • Angaoba - Scenes #3 :: eRang
  • 51st Mr Manipur Contest 2017 #3 : Gallery
  • Result: Manipur Sangai Intl Digital salon
  • Use Swachhata App to Make Imphal No. 1
  • Career @ events and celebration
  • Night nourishing
  • Indo-Nepal Friendship: 25 yrs of Don Bosco
  • Understanding the indices of life
  • Poppy cultivation & drug cartels
  • Emoinu Khoiramba @Koubru #1: Gallery
  • Day 10: Closing of Sangai Fest #4 : Gallery
  • The creation of the universe, matter...
  • Mumbai: The city of dreams
  • Let this new year kill your new fears
  • Asian Waterbird Census: Count waterbirds
  • Looking for a better inclusive alternative
  • Coaching & commercialisation of education
  • New Year picnic @ Singda Dam : Gallery
  • Miss Manipur 2017 #3 : Gallery
  • Despite Stolen Dreams :: Book Rvw
  • Handloom Training @Hojai : Gallery
  • The Perfect timing
  • IGAR (south) meets Chief Minister
  • Communique from Neiphiu Rio on NDPP
  • Discussion on 'Rohingyas' at Delhi
  • In the process of making change- Manipur
  • Looking ahead from vantage point 2017
  • 'Naga problem is an International issue'
  • Manipur tops insurgency fatalities in NE
  • NEROCA FC Vs East Bengal #1: Gallery
  • World Tourism Day #2: Gallery
  • Immediate Manipur
  • Easter Peace :: Poem
  • You are what you eat
  • Goals for Girls: Leadership Summit @Delhi
  • Imoinu Erat Thouni #1: Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Front Page Photo #6: Gallery
  • LUCIFER-X released debut EP
  • ..on the ocean of despondence :: Poem
  • Happy new year to State lovers
  • New year, new me: Re-designing self
  • Quiz Competition & Career Awareness
  • Calendar for the Year 2018 :: e-pao Tools
  • Gaan Ngai : Zeliangrong festival :: Flash
  • 51st Mr Manipur Contest 2017 #2 : Gallery
  • Crowd @ Flower Festival @Mao #4: Gallery
  • Gaan-Ngai Festival of Zelianglong
  • Goodbye 2017, welcome 2018
  • Cry of a dying river- 11 :: Poem
  • Free Heart OPD & Echocardiogram
  • Peoples' mandate: what next?
  • Understanding Manipur and its history
  • Kwatha (Indo-Myanmar Border) #2: Gallery
  • Thang Ta @Parlimentary : Gallery
  • A Hymn for Goddess Emoinu
  • Bamboo for poverty alleviations
  • A costly peace deal
  • The song of the speech-impaired : Poem
  • Opportunity for NE Youth @Delhi/NCR
  • Chief Of Army Staff visits Manipur
  • Waiting for another begining
  • NE: Little change albeit promises galore
  • Flower Festival @ Mao #3 : Gallery
  • Miss Manipur 2017 #2 : Gallery
  • Why the Ngamu Fish ?
  • Unsung heroes
  • Wishing a goa in Manipur!
  • Handloom Weaver at Nagaon, Assam
  • Reminder on role of media & political party
  • Hospital death: Deliver justice if delivery ..
  • Restricted Holidays 2018 : Govt of Manipur
  • Lourembam Bedabati : Sangeetbhusan
  • Culturals @ Mera Houchongba #3 : Gallery
  • Handloom Training @Assam : Gallery
  • Purgatory :: Poem
  • Survival of Manipur..in the hands of Meiteis
  • A glimpse of happiness
  • Blessing of Christmas
  • India, ASEAN & dismal infrastructure in NE
  • Meetei Chanu 2017 #1 : Gallery
  • Ras Leela @Parliment committee: Gallery
  • List of RIST popular talks during 2014-2017
  • Career at Insurance #2
  • Rape & murder of Shila Nengneikim Haokip
  • Manipuri troupe @Serendipity Arts Fest, Goa
  • Handloom Weaver at Hojai, Assam
  • 'Good Governance Day' & Manipur
  • 51st Mr Manipur Contest 2017 #1 : Gallery
  • Christmas eve @ CCpur #2 : Gallery
  • Fireflies: Documentary selected in Athens
  • Public Holidays 2018 : Govt of Manipur
  • Christmas eve @ CCpur #1 : Gallery
  • Pui Thangamliu #2 :: eRang
  • Christmas Carol @ Lamphel : Gallery
  • 4th Intl Sankritan Day #2 : Gallery
  • Royal Crematorium at Bangkok #2 : Gallery
  • Christmas Carol at Namdulong : Gallery
  • K Padmakumar's Play 'Sambal' : Gallery
  • Ng. Brajachand: Veteran Scientist of Manipur
  • General Holidays 2018 : Govt of Manipur
  • Three ladies and a polo tournament
  • 3rd Flower Festival @ Mao #2 : Gallery
  • Lafoi Shamda puthorkpa #1 : Gallery
  • Sagolshem Tijendra :: Sangeetbhusan
  • Nupilal Ningsing Lamjen : Gallery
  • cYK_rb TwaI :: Seireng
  • Manipur Sangai Festival 2016 #7 : Ooba
  • Manipuri Calendar for 2018 : Download it
  • Old Manipuri Movie #1 :: eRang Classic
  • SPONSORED ADS